Saturday, May 23, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 1014 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/09/25 Category Advertising Essay Type Narrative essay Tags: Civilization Essay Did you like this example? Absolutism and Peter the Great Many monarchs, particularly those of European descent, employed the flourishing absolutist philosophy during their reign in the seventeenth century. Defined as the absolute or unlimited rule usually by one man, absolutism is virtually equivalent to the philosophy of despotism. A ruler incorporating the absolutist philosophy has complete control of his subjects and the highest authority with which to govern. With origins dating back to the Ancient Greeks, absolutism found root in some of Aristotles theories: Aristotle despotic government (nearly convertible with tyrannical) is that of a single ruler that rules, not for the public good but for his own. And from Roman political theory regarding the power of the monarch, there had survived, particularly, a legacy of ideas associated with the position and prestige of a ruler which greatly strengthened the power of a dynasty. Based on this Greek foundation in Aristotelian thought and Roman politic al theory, absolutism rose in other schools of philosophy as it gained prominence in the political world. Combining natural-law doctrines with the theory of royal absolutism, fourteenth century philosopher Bartolus of Sassoferrato believed that the ruler should not be bound to the laws of the government, but still should obey them whenever possible. In agreement with Bartolus, another fourteenth century philosopher, Lucas de Penna advocated that the ruler is only accountable to divine authority, being responsible to God alone, not the people. Further de Penna believed that law is the articulation of the ethical virtue of justice and reason is the foundation for that law. Thereby debasing the importance of the kings obedience to established law. As civilization began to organize in city-states to individual countries to entire dynasties or empires, all needing some form of government, the people organized hierarchically. Establishing order under one appointed leader helped advance that civilization; those advances, however, quickly leveled out into a plateau of stagnation under the political unit of feudalism. During the seventeenth century, the various peoples of Western Europe enjoyed the many benefits of a relatively advanced civilization in many respects but were, with few exceptions, incapable of self-government The result was that governmental authority was held by a number of rulers who assumed unto themselves all the responsibilities of political leadership. Ã¢â¬ Lord Acton, a famous historian, while not advocating its use, believed that absolutism was highly necessary for the survival and actual allowance for European growth through her monarchs. Three characteristics that specifically mark a seventeenth century absolute monarch are charisma, active advocating of the Divine Right of kings, and innovativeness. Known as the period of transformation, the reign of Peter the Great in Russia was one of great change and revolutionary movements toward s modernity. As the Tsar Reformer, Peter embraced his monarchy with zeal and absoluteness. He took an underdeveloped, primitive Russia and forcibly pushed her to the road of progress, secularism, modernity, and eventual rebirth. It was only through acknowledgment and utilization of his strengths and talents that provided Peter with the insight to accomplish such a feat. On September 22, 1689, Peter took control of the Russian throne under the guidance of his mother. Before taking position on the throne, Peter entered manhood through the vast amount of experiences he encountered at a very young age. He lived through three coups detat, constant threats of violence against his family, seven years of semi-exile, his first military campaigns, an unprecedented journey to western Europe and a major revolt against his rule. From these bitter personal experiences, these painful political struggles, and these tentative approaches to war and government, Peter slowly learned the strengths and weaknesses of his heritage. As stated by V. O. Kliuchevsky, Peters contradiction in work, his errors, his hesitations, his obstinacy, his lack of judgment in civil affairs, his uncontrollable cruelty, and, on the other hand his wholehearted love of his country, his stubborn devotion to his work, the broad, enlightened outlook he brought to bear on it, his daring plans conceived with creative genius and concluded with incomparable energy, and finally the uccess he achieved by the incredible sacrifices of his people and himself, all these different characteristics make it difficult to paint one painting of the Tsarist Reformer. A multi-faceted man, Peter knew what it would take to deliver his people from the chaotic disorder of the past into a more peaceful progressive future. Boundless energy and an endless drive, Peter truly embodied the absolute stamina of a superhero. Employing the doctrine of the Divine Right of kings, Peter had no problem acting as the supreme authority wi th which he governed. In addition, he readily accepted any role permitted to him through this doctrine. In fact, in response to his responsibility as tsar, Peter became a soldier-king, a European diplomat, and a social reformer to name a few. Also known for his reforms, Peter transformed Russia politically, economically, and somewhat socially. Financially, Peter reopened trade for the Russians, creating a huge influx in their economy and bringing prosperity back into the system. His expansionist mindset allowed for the most startling development in trade to even occur. Thus, the emergence of Baltic trade. While Peter looked globally for ways to extend the Russian borders, he also concentrated on internal reform as well, such as internal transportation focused on the rivers of Russia. Overall, Peters commercial reforms were a huge success. Peter also geared his transforming abilities to that of the Russian Church. He chose not to focus on Church doctrine, but rather the people who use this doctrine. He wanted the people to be subject to his decree, not the mandate of the Church. Peter was suspicious of the Churchs political motivations and aspirations and chose not to trust in the papal leadership. He believed that the Russian Patriarch was trying to become a second sovereign possessing power equal to or above that of the autocrat, thus challenging his belief in the Divine Right of kings. While Peter did not have any major accomplishments to speak of during his reign, he paved the way for the future leaders of Russia to push to the forefront of politics, trade, and economics. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Absolutism and Peter the Great" essay for you Create order
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
A candle can burn in zero gravity, but the flame is quite a bit different. Fire behaves differently in space and microgravity than on Earth. Microgravity Flames A microgravity flame forms a sphere surrounding the wick. Diffusion feeds the flame with oxygen and allows carbon dioxide to move away from the point of combustion, so the rate of burning is slowed. The flame of a candle burned in microgravity is an almost invisible blue, so invisible that video cameras on the Mir Space Station could not even detect the color. Experiments on Skylab and Mir indicate that the temperature of the flame is too low for the yellow color seen on Earth. Smoke and soot production are different for candles and other forms of fire in space or zero gravity compared to those on earth. Unless airflow is available, the slower gas exchange from diffusion can produce a soot-free flame. However, when burning stops at the tip of the flame, soot production begins. Soot and smoke production dependÃ on the fuel flow rate. It isnt true that candles burn for a shorter length of time in space. Dr. Shannon Lucid (Mir), found that candles that burn for 10 minutes or less on Earth produced a flame for up to 45 minutes. When the flame is extinguished, a white ball surrounding the candle tip remains, which may be a fog of flammable wax vapor.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(52) " as many as 500,000 Eves per year by the year 2020\." Tests gains competitive advantage over auto industry competitors because of their direct-to- nonuser sales, stores and service centers, innovative consumer financing options, and technological innovations. Tests faces multiple risks in its ongoing operations and strategic plans for future growth. TeaselÃ¢â¬â¢s 201 2 annual report cites 63 risks related to TeaselÃ¢â¬â¢s business and industry and an additional 6 risks related to the ownership of their common stock. We will write a custom essay sample on The Corporate Rundown Tesla Motors or any similar topic only for you Order Now In an attempt to identify gaps and propose recommendations for future implementation an analysis of the principal forces of supply and demand on the industry / company is required. Tests Motors-?objective and Strategy Chant Nell Tests Motors eschews the traditional auto industry Ã¢â¬Å"dealershipÃ¢â¬ model and bypasses dealers and reaches customers directly through company-owned showrooms and online retail channels Value-added services are included, such as supercharger stations being installed in major markets throughout the US. Strategy Tests aims to become a mass producer of electric vehicles. In 2008, it launched the Tests Roadster model-?a paradigm shift/keystone in the EVE market. Tests has positioned itself as a key competitor in the EVE market. Market Positioning Tests covers key EVE market segments and dominates the EVE segment Of the argue automotive industry. The 201 2 Model S targeted at the middle- and upper-middle-class customer. The 2014 Model X to take advantage of the booming SUB crossover segment. The 201 6 Gene Ill is positioned to compete with mass market Eves. Alliances To facilitate growth, Tests has cultivated X types of partnerships, including supplier alliances, RD alliances, and MEMO alliances with other automobile manufacturers. Additional revenue is generated from the sale of electric power train components and development services. Tests Motors-?Financial Performance and Future Guidance Tests Motors held its initial public offering (PIP) on January 29th of 2010. According to a break even analysis the firm became cash flow positive for the first time in its history in Q of PAYOFF. Tests has unique business structure. Its competitors in its industry are highly mature as opposed to TeaselÃ¢â¬â¢s newly developed business model, thus finding comparable companies can be difficult. Given TeaselÃ¢â¬â¢s uniqueness, two comparable analyses were required. One comparable analysis captures TeaselÃ¢â¬â¢s industry competitors and one comparable analysis will capture TeaselÃ¢â¬â¢s high growth rate. For the industry memorable analysis, seven companies are utilized to derive the industry average EVE/Revenue and EVE/Gross Profit levels. Using a weighted EVE/Revenue and EVE/Gross Profit for both set at 50%, the top line and the gross profit of the industry will sustain TeaselÃ¢â¬â¢s future target levels. When screening for comparable for the growth rates in order to calculate the companies that have relative high revenue growth rate for 201 3 and 2014 a weighted EVE/ Revenue of 70% and EVE/Gross Profit of 30% is the best achievable outcome and is the most important measurement to consider for the high growth company. Existing Tests Market Dynamics- Lifestyle / Supply Chain Management: Tests created its life cycle and supply train strategy with the full understanding it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be the only producer of all-electric vehicles for long. TeaselÃ¢â¬â¢s value proposition or Ã¢â¬Å"uniquenessÃ¢â¬ had to come from a commitment to being Ã¢â¬Å"at least two generations aheadÃ¢â¬ of its rivals. But how could it achieve that goal, when its battery packs came from a company in Taiwan that had previously manufactured only barbeques? TeaselÃ¢â¬â¢s own engineers would have to spend months in Asia working out the design and engineering kinks. And the extra costs wound up wiping out the savings from cheap labor. To combat this Tests employed the following policies. It brought the power train manufacturing back in-house. Final assembly was relocated to California from the United Kingdom. Contract manufacturing was limited to the non-power elements of the vehicle. Its supplier base, more than 85 percent of which consisted of vendors producing a single part, was slashed. The company is now producing the Model S, a sedan with a base price of $57,000 greatly widening market of potential buyers. Through several iterations of its Roadster; each representing an improvement in quality and a reduction in production costs, as well as the initial production year for the Model S, Tests has pushed forward with its strategy although some issues do present themselves such as the recently announcement on Fox Business that Ã¢â¬Å"Tests provided some disappointing news in its recent third-quarter earnings report. The maker of electric cars lowered expectations for 2014 deliveries and delayed the launch of its Model X, a high-end electric crossover, until next fall. Ã¢â¬ This could point to some supply and demand issue and warrants further investigation. Controls: TeaselÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy centers around maintaining high quality controls as they transition to a higher level of in-house manufacturing process; and that the information technology systems that we are currently expanding and improving upon will be effective to manage a higher volume production. Operations: Tests sells its cars to customers through its stores which it fully owns and operates. Tests stores and galleries Ã¢â¬Å"are highly visible, premium outlets in major metropolitan markets some of which combine retail sales and serviceÃ¢â¬ . TeaselÃ¢â¬â¢s stores change the entire car buying experience and take way the incentive of both the buyer and seller to compete on price. Furthermore, TeaselÃ¢â¬â¢s stores allow the firm to achieve operating efficiencies as well as capture sales and services revenues that typical automobile manufacturers do not. Technology: Earlier this year TeaselÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO, Leon Musk, announced to the world to permit competitors to, Ã¢â¬Å"in good faith,Ã¢â¬ make use of the automakerÃ¢â¬â¢s patent portfolio for free. The goal, he wrote on TeaselÃ¢â¬â¢s weapon, was to lure automakers into entering the electric vehicle (Ã¢â¬Å"EVEÃ¢â¬ ) market. This patent policy shift was put forth in an effort to quicken the argental growth of Eves in the automotive market currently dominated by internal combustion engine vehicles. Additionally, Tests announced has an agreement with Panasonic to build a new, United States based battery plant. According to Deanne De Freesias of IV News, Ã¢â¬Å"Dubbed the Cofactors, the facility will be able to produce batteries for as many as 500,000 Eves per year by the year 2020. You read "The Corporate Rundown Tesla Motors" in category "Papers" The scale of the production is projected to be so large, in fact, that by 2020 the Cofactors alone would produce as much battery capacity as the entire world produced in 2013. Ã¢â¬ Freesias goes on the say, Ã¢â¬Å"To be ere, the impact of the Cofactors will positively affect electric auto sales. The Cofactors scale and capacity may be felt across the technology and energy sectors as well. Financial: Tests announced a new financing option for customers that aim to bring down the monthly cost of owning a Model S. The finance option allows customers to enter into a 5. 5 year loan for around $500-$600 per month. Essentially, the customer does not have to put down any money up front because all Tests customers receive a federal tax credit. The fed eral tax credit is an incentive from the government for consumers to arches electric vehicles. The finance option combines the best features of a lease and a loan and makes the car affordable to more consumers. Lattice: TeaselÃ¢â¬â¢s direct-to-consumer car sales are a strong strategic position and advantage they hold over typical automobile manufacturers in North America. Most automobile manufacturers are required by state law to sell their vehicles their franchised car dealerships. Tests is able to sell their cars directly to consumers because it has no franchised dealers Automotive Industry Business Cycle According to Douche, Ã¢â¬Å"Many factors affect the performance of an industry and s each industry makes up a portion of real GAP, they in turn can impact the cycle of the economy. The automotive industry is clearly impacted by macroeconomic policy and auto production and sales rates in relation to interest rates, real GAP, inflation and unemployment make this evident.. Ã¢â¬ Tests has the deliberate yet novel approach of phasing in their product offerings gradually starting with the very high end / high performance model and then through its entrants in the performance sedan and crossover SUB markets, concluding with an what is typically an auto companies first offering, its mass market vehicle. Tests reversed the roll so they could generate a lot of hype in the media on a very limited production run. The most interesting thing about Tests is the role of marketing in selling electric cars that cost $100,000 or more. Many business leaders have attempted to change the automotive industry over the last couple generations and none have succeeded. The process Of buying a car is essentially the same as it was generations ago. And the process has remained unpopular for decades. Tests is creatively using marketing to upend the auto industry business model: There are no Tests dealers There are no commissioned sales people Tests cars are marketed and not aggressively sold Tests transactions are conducted online The price is the price: no negotiation There is no inventory: the Tests Model S is built to order You canÃ¢â¬â¢t test drive a Tests unless you put down a $5,000 deposit In many parts of the country, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t see or drive the car before you buy even if you place a deposit. You have to wait in line for months or years to get a car And the marketing challenges are incredibly difficult: They are building a new luxury brand from scratch They are evangelize a new type of vehicle: an electric car They are selling a 60,000 Ã¢â¬â $100,000+ car that canÃ¢â¬â¢t go on a road trip They must sell an entirely new model of buying and owning a car While Tests is starting with expensive vehicles, they clearly have mainstream ambitions. They are investing to build a big car company. How hard is it to build and sell cars in the USA? Look at it this way: Tests is the second oldest publicly traded auto company in the united States behind Ford. GM went bankrupt and went public four months after Tests. Chrysler remains private following its own reorganization. While Tests has a long way to go to be profitable, producing cars in volume, and vying towards the mainstream, their first home-built product -? the Model S -? is a SUCCeSS. They have 10,000 Ã¢â¬â 20,000 orders and have swept the auto industry awards, winning the most recent round of Motor Trend, Automobile, and Yahoo Autos awards for car of the year. Tests is the first startup car company, and the Model S is the first electric car, to win these awards. Risk Management Recommendations and Strategies- Based on the research conducted a few of the lessons learned would be prudent for Tests to internalize and incorporate going forward. Make sure that supply-chain, corporate and product strategies are tightly aligned. TeaselÃ¢â¬â¢s us apply-chain managers should work closely with the engineers to jointly evaluate costs, working with only a targeted few trusted suppliers. Complete and in-depth evaluation of the multiple external drivers, including global economic trends, customer preferences, proximity to markets, labor costs, supplier quality, regulatory requirements, environmental sustainability, community responsibility and geopolitical shifts. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t offshore manufacturing until your product has matured and stabilized. With the opening of the Gaga factory this issue is well on its way to being solved but it bears remembering. While there is no history of or mention of derivatives for Tests in either Its annual report or the media it is considered as a perfect hedge according to Seeking Alpha or Tests can capitalize on this to counter the first three risks related to the ownership Of our common stock identified in the 2012 annual report. 1. Concentration of ownership among our existing executive officers, directors and their affiliates may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions. 2. The trading price of our common stock is likely to continue to be volatile. 3. A majority of our total outstanding shares are held by insiders and may be sold in the near future. The large number of shares eligible for public sale or subject to rights requiring us to register them for public sale could depress the market price of our common stock. Hedging will enable a more diversified ownership, reduce the volatility in stock pricing and if staggered effectively reduce the impact of insiders selling large allotments of shares. Conclusion Tests developed a specific strategy for life cycle and supply train management with the goal of being Ã¢â¬Å"at least two generations aheadÃ¢â¬ of its rivals. As a intros strategy to improve on supply and demand management Tests will transition to increased levels of Ã¢â¬Å"in-houseÃ¢â¬ manufacturing processes. In an integrated approach linking operations and political strategies Tests sells its cars to customers through its stores which it fully owns and operates bypassing state regulated dealerships entirely. Its technology strategy is a patent policy shift, put forth in an effort to quicken the percentage growth of electronic vehicles in the automotive market currently dominated by internal combustion engine vehicles. For a financial strategy Tests created a new enhancing option for customers that aim to bring down the monthly cost of owning a Model S. Tests has identified 69 different risks in its 2012 annual report and has formulated risk mitigation strategies for each. How to cite The Corporate Rundown Tesla Motors, Papers
Saturday, May 2, 2020
On November 15, 2011, Aubrey Ã¢â¬Å"DrakeÃ¢â¬ Graham dropped his sophomore album, Ã¢â¬Å"Take Care.Ã¢â¬ After Drakes debut, Ã¢â¬Å"Thank Me Later,Ã¢â¬ impacted the rap genre on such a huge scale, fans were excited to see what was next for the flourishing young rapper. Ã¢â¬Å"Take CareÃ¢â¬ not only raises the standards of rap, but also displays sincere emotions in a genre that celebrates being the toughest and coldest. Drake stands out because of his ability to convey explicit feelings, even if that means admitting to crying. Hes not afraid to pour it all into his music; at this pace, Drake is well on his way to revolutionizing the music scene. The emotion and sincerity can clearly be heard in Drakes voice whenever he raps or sings; he conveys so much in just a few words. Thats not to say that he isnt filled with arrogance, but his ego is well deserved due to his success. We will write a custom essay sample on Drake: Take Care or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Opening the song Ã¢â¬Å"Headlines,Ã¢â¬ Drake is not afraid to admit he believes the world is his and enjoys rubbing his success in the noses of those who doubt him. Ã¢â¬Å"I might be too strung out on compliments/overdosed on confidence/started not to give a f**k and stop fearing the consequence.Ã¢â¬ However, when you move on to the melancholy harmonica provided by Stevie Wonder in Ã¢â¬Å"Doing It Wrong,Ã¢â¬ the mood changes to the polar opposite: the pain and anguish of a break up. Ã¢â¬Å"Take CareÃ¢â¬ is a ride that can change moods from one song to the next, but with such finesse that the listener can easily accept it. Drake is an outstanding rapper, but when hes around good company, the guy becomes untouchable. Ã¢â¬Å"Take CareÃ¢â¬ features a variety of artists who complement Drake and bring out the best in this Canadian rapper. Throughout the album there are appearances from Nicki Minaj, Lil Wayne, Rihanna, Rick Ross, Birdman, and The Weekend. These artists have made their mark on rap and continue to do so. The highlights begin with the title track, featuring Rihanna. It contains a piano synth loop that gives an upbeat but cautious mood of entering a new relationship with its trust issues of being hurt by an ex-girlfriend. Then Ã¢â¬Å"HYFR,Ã¢â¬ featuring Lil Wayne, is a song that indulges in the joys of being famous and doing whatever you want. Ã¢â¬Å"The Motto,Ã¢â¬ also featuring Lil Wayne, is a bonus track available if the album is purchased online. It supplies a heavy bass line and constant crisp hi-hats that give an old-school feeling from the late ?s and ?s. The track demonstrates the glamour of fame and has Wayne and Drake flaunting their ego with a simple flow, but is still astounding. The pinnacle of Ã¢â¬Å"Take CareÃ¢â¬ is the hubristic track Ã¢â¬Å"Make Me Proud,Ã¢â¬ featuring Nicki Minaj. From start to finish, the song supplies lyrical acuteness from both Drake and up-and-comer Minaj. Ã¢â¬Å"Take CareÃ¢â¬ is a great composition and is also just a taste of what Drake is capable of. With this album, expectations have increased yet again. Now all thats left is to wait to see if Drake rises to expectations again.
Sunday, March 22, 2020
AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease Essays AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease Essay AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease Essay This specific instance is about Eli Lilly developing a new drug which is said to cure AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. However, when patients started taking the drug, their condition even regressed. Moreover, they risked developing skin cancer. Although there are various aspects involved here, the problem that this paper will address is that of ethical practices. Lilly obviously conducted laboratory tests which proved successful. When they tested the drug in real people with AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s, they realized that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not working and itÃ¢â¬â¢s even contributing to a worse case of AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s. But what could have been done in order to prevent this type of scenario? The next question here is, to what degree must human testing be done in order to serve the common good? Given that the experiment was successful, the next the Lilly will do is to mass produce and manufacture this drug and sell it to people with AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s. But now that it turned wrong, were the experiment participants insured before the experimentation began? Should the experts considered stopping the experimentation when the first few symptoms of regression appeared? Lilly is a global pharmaceutical plant leading in most researches to discover new medications for various types of disease. However, in this particular experimentation procedure, pharmaceutical ethics were not applied. There could be a Ã¢â¬Å"greater goodÃ¢â¬ which needs to be attained- even though it means sacrificing other people to do so. Anyway, since the experimentation was not successful and Lilly expressed that it will not continue the research on this drug anymore, then goals were not met. There was no wonder AlzhemierÃ¢â¬â¢s drug that was created and it even caused more suffering both to the AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s patients who tested the medication and their family. Bibliography Kolata, G. (2010, August 18). Doubt on Tactic in AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Battle. Retrieved August 21, 2010, from nytimes. com/2010/08/19/health/19alzheimers. html? _r=1ref=health Appendix A Doubt on Tactic in AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Battle By GINA KOLATA Published: August 18, 2010 The failure of a promising AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s drug in clinical trials highlights the gap between diagnosis - where real progress has recently been made - and treatment of the disease. It was not just that the drug, made by Eli Lilly, did not work - maybe that could be explained by saying the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ illness was too far advanced when they received it. It was that the drug actually made them worse, the company said. And the larger the dose they took, the worse were patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ symptoms of memory loss and inability to care for themselves. Not only that, the drug also increased the risk of skin cancer. So when Lilly announced on Tuesday that it was ending its large clinical trials of that drug, semagacestat, researchers were dismayed. Ã¢â¬Å"Obviously, this is disappointing news, to say the least,Ã¢â¬ said Dr. Steven Paul, an AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s researcher and a recently retired executive vice president at Lilly. Beyond the setback for Lilly, the study raises questions about a leading hypothesis of the cause of AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s and how to treat it. The idea, known as the amyloid hypothesis, says the disease occurs when a toxic protein, beta amyloid, accumulates in the brain. The idea is that if beta amyloid levels are reduced, the disease might be slowed, halted or even prevented if treatment starts early enough. The Lilly drug, like most of the more than 100 AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s drugs under development, blocks an enzyme, gamma secretase, needed to make beta amyloid. It was among the first shown to breach the blood-brain barrier and reduce levels of beta amyloid in the brain. And, company studies showed, it did reduce amyloid production. Ã¢â¬Å"We did get enough in the brain to have an effect,Ã¢â¬ said Dr. Eric Siemers, medical director of LillyÃ¢â¬â¢s AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease team. Ã¢â¬Å"Unfortunately, the effect was not what we wanted. Ã¢â¬ Now researchers are focused on what went wrong, and why. Some, like Dr. Lon Schneider, an AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s researcher at the University of Southern California, say the drugÃ¢â¬â¢s failure may mean the field is rushing off a cliff in its near single-minded focus on blocking the production of amyloid. Dr. Schneider, like most leading AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s researchers, consults for a number of drug companies, including Lilly. The Lilly studyÃ¢â¬â¢s failure, he said, Ã¢â¬Å"chips away at that approach to testing the amyloid hypothesis. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what the drug targets for AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease are,Ã¢â¬ Dr. Schneider said. Ã¢â¬Å"We donÃ¢â¬â¢t know because we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know the causes of AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s. Ã¢â¬ At the very least, said Dr. P. Murali Doraiswamy, an AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s researcher at Duke University, the Lilly result Ã¢â¬Å"clearly tells us that our current views may be too simplistic. Ã¢â¬ Dr. Doraiswamy said he was not abandoning the amyloid hypothesis. But, he said, Ã¢â¬Å"this is a time of major soul-searching in the field. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What worries me is that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know if this was a toxicity unique to LillyÃ¢â¬â¢s drug and this late-stage population or whether it also applies to similar anti-amyloid therapies given at earlier stages of the disease,Ã¢â¬ Dr. Doraiswamy said. The bad news came on the heels of what researchers see as a resurgence of hope in this challenging field. With new cooperation in research they have made advances in diagnosing AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s, a disease that used to be uncertain until autopsy. And those new diagnostic tests are still exciting, researchers said. PET scans of amyloid plaques in the brain and tests of cerebrospinal fluid can show amyloid accumulation long before people have symptoms of AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease and, as recently reported, appear to identify people at high risk of the disease. Researchers believe the best time to try to alter the course of the disease is before memory loss. By then, brain cells are dead or dying and are unlikely to be restored. At this point, though, when there is no treatment, those tests are primarily a benefit for companies testing new therapies and researchers trying to understand the diseaseÃ¢â¬â¢s progress. . The long journey of semagacestat began more than a decade ago when Lilly scientists discovered it could block gamma secretase in laboratory experiments. Years of work followed, showing it appeared safe, that it got into the brains of people, that it reduced the production of amyloid in the brain. Finally, in 2008, Lilly began two large studies of semagacestat, enrolling more than 2,600 people with AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. The company did not expect its drug to reverse the disease - patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ brains were too ravaged for that, said Richard Mohs, LillyÃ¢â¬â¢s team leader in AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s research. But it did hope to slow the diseaseÃ¢â¬â¢s progression. Now, with the abrupt end of the studies, patients will continue to be followed but no one will be taking any more of the drug. Ã¢â¬Å"The fact that people got worse means there is biology we donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand,Ã¢â¬ Dr. Mohs said. There are several possible explanations. One is that the drug altered the functioning of other proteins in the brain and body - it now appears that gamma secretase is involved in the production of about 20 proteins in addition to beta amyloid. Companies, including Lilly, are developing drugs that block gamma secretase from making amyloid but have little effect on other proteins. One company, Bristol-Myers Squibb, says that is what its drug does. Its drug is now being tested in two clinical trials. In one, the participants have AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s. In the other, they have lesser memory impairment and have brain amyloid PET scans and tests of cerebrospinal fluid showing amyloid is accumulating in their brains, indicating that they are likely to develop AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s. Ã¢â¬Å"We still like the amyloid hypothesis,Ã¢â¬ said Charlie Albright, a Bristol-Myers group director in neuroscience biology. The Lilly drug failure Ã¢â¬Å"doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t affect our enthusiasm about going forward. Ã¢â¬ Another possibility is that the enzyme is decreasing production not just of a dangerous form of amyloid, known as a beta 42, but also of another form, a beta 40, that may protect the brain. Companies are developing so-called selective gamma secretase inhibitors, Dr. Paul said, which only block the production of a beta 42. Lilly and other companies are also testing monoclonal antibodies to reduce amyloid levels. And companies are pursuing a more difficult target - blocking a protein, tau, that accumulates in dead and dying nerve cells after the disease is under way. But AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s experts worry about the future. The research is extremely expensive - Lilly spent hundreds of millions of dollars on its failed drug - and it can take a decade or more to know if a drug works. It can take even longer if drugs are tested in people with mild symptoms of AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease or in people who are at high risk but have no symptoms yet - a direction many think is necessary to really make a difference. Ã¢â¬Å"Failures certainly donÃ¢â¬â¢t build energy and enthusiasm,Ã¢â¬ said Dr. Samuel Gandy, an AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s researcher at Mount Sinai Medical Center. Ã¢â¬Å"The market is still there, but failures do take their toll. Ã¢â¬ A version of this news analysis appeared in print on August 19, 2010, on page A14 of the New York edition.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
The Development of Terrorism essays The development of terrorism in Herfried Mnklers The New Wars The book The New Wars by Herfried Mnkler deals with the main differences between the, so called, old wars and new wars, and its origins. Compared with the old wars a char-acteristic of the new wars is that because of the proceeding globalization constitutional states do not have an explicit monopoly on the use of military force any more , i.e. that theoretically everybody who has any political, ethnical, or social demand could buy weapons and, thus, be a source of danger. Consequently, the new wars consist of two or more war parties not having the same military, monetary and constitutional conditions. As a result, there are war parties which do not respect the traditional conventions like the distinction between combatants and non-combatants. Furthermore, economic interests are mixed with political goals. Mnkler embeds the term terrorism in the wider context of the new wars. Generally spoken, terror-ism can be defined as a form of violence used in order to push through a political w ill with the help of the indirect effects of violence. Originally, terrorism was a part of the war strategy of partisanship supporting the smouldering so called low intensity wars and later became an independent war strategy itself. Terrorism in the nineteenth century, with respect to the Russian revolutionaries who fought for social interests, and in the twentieth century, with regard to the rebellions against the colonial power in the respective colonies, was characteristic of one decisive quality: the limitation of terrorist violence. Terrorists in the nineteenth and twentieth century mostly fought in the name of a certain social or ethnic minority. On the one hand this created a justi-fication for their terrorist acts and the possibility of obtaining human or material supplies from this minori...
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Generation of Electricity - Assignment Example However, the PVs may also be ustilised in the production of alternating current when appropriate appliances are utilised. According to Knier (2002), photovoltaics uses the atomic level to convert light directlt into the generation of electricity. These involve using materials that can absorb light photons and later release electrons, such materials are said to have photoelectric effect. The capturing of the electrons produced by the photoelectric effects helps in the generation of electricity. According to the diagram above, rays from the sun are tapped by the photovoltaic cells. A common photovoltaic cell is a silicon cell that consist of N-type and P-type silicon. Thses silicon are located at the top most part of the material. The generation of electric field takes place at the upper part of the cells where the two silicons are situated. They comes into contact with the junction of the materials (referred to as P-N junction) (McNichol, 2006; Bazilian et al., 2013). The sunlight strikes the electric filed to induce motion of the electron that results in the flow of current. The size of the surface area of the PV cell determines the amount of electricity generated. The intensity of the rays from the sun also affects the amount of current generated. The larger the size of PV cells and the more intense the rays, the higher the amount of electrons generated hence increased electric supply. For instance a cell with an area of 150 cm^2 will generate 2 watts power. When a solar panel is exposed in the sunlight as shown in the diagram below, it will generate electricity that can be measured. The voltage produced is around 100volts on a single day when there is optimal sunshine. This can be stored on batteries arranged in series as shown in the diagram below. The results of such a strategy depends on the size of the panel and the amount of sunshine ( Knier, 2002; Wolfgang, 2013). Primary batteries are cheap because